Formerly known under the name of Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF 8), Myostatin is a growth factor limiting the muscle tissue. It is part of the TGF Beta 1.
This is a protein that has a direct action on the growth by acting on the muscle fibers. Myostatin is thus in the muscle cells.
If myostatin is too weakly present, the muscles will be developed too. Otherwise, if the myostatin is too high amount in the body muscle mass will be insufficient. This is the case for example for people with heart failure: the heart contains too much myostatin.
This protein is present in striated muscle cells of skeletal muscle.
The persons in lack of this protein have a muscular look totally bloated like the athletes practicing intensive training.
In the case of excess of myostatin in the body, person, or animal, will suffer a real muscular developmental delay.
The sport practiced regularly can lower levels of this protein in the body concretelyBoth in skeletal muscle and in the heart.
Several studies have been conducted on how the natural mechanism of regulation of muscle protein growth myostatin, Hoping to find a way to block its action, in order to achieve increased muscle mass either in humans or animals.
Muscular hypertrophy caused by the disorder of myostatin is due to the mutation of GDF8 gene which is located in chromosome 2.
The increase in muscle size is accompanied not necessarily an increase in muscle strength that should accompany naturally. The fatty tissue is related to the muscle is usually very thin.
The homozygous or heterozygous have the same clinical signs, which depend only on the amount of myostatin. Simply homozygotes have double the normal muscles in terms of volume.
the follistatines are proteins. Their actions are involved in the fine regulation of family growth factors TGF betaBy acting mainly on Activins and inhibited.
Their roles are to inactivate the growth factors family members of TG beta. How does it work? The follistatines bind growth factors, affecting the amount of these proteins that will successfully bind to their receptors.
Their principal property is to act so very close to their production sites. The follastine binds to beta subunits a and b of these proteins, in a logical manner so you have two follastines to inactivate an activin and inhibin for.
ACVR2B peptides (ACE-031) 1mg
It's about (ACE-31) an experimental therapeutic protein. Its role is strengthening muscles and increasing strength. Its action is the inhibition of molecules that bind through a cell surface receptor that is called Activin Receptor Type IIB (ActRIIB).
This is by attaching a part of a human antibody with a portion of human ActRIIB receptor which is able to form the ACE-031 protein.
The free movement of the ActRIIB protein removes other proteins such as GDF-8 and other molecules of the same family that limit growth and muscle strength.
The TGF-beta family of proteins 8 is the trigger for the production of muscles. It works on the trigger or stop muscle growth.
In the absence of these molecules (which act by signaling through the ActRIIB receptor), theIncreasing muscle mass is impressively. This phenomenon has been observed in many species, especially in several animal species.
THE'ACE-031 treats skeletal muscles and promotes muscle growth by inhibiting the information ofActRIIB which must bind to proteins to limit the growth of the muscles.
When the ACE-031 is linked with these proteins, the interaction with the receptor ActRIIB blocks and, therefore, regulation of muscle growth is not performed. The muscle thus continues to develop in a major way.
As ACE-031 8 prevents GDF proteins (among others) to act on the regulation of muscle mass by the transmission of information to the ActRIIB receptor, its effects on lean muscle mass are much higher than those of GDF-8 inhibitors alone (myostatin).
Medical studies on inhibiting Myostatin
It was at the University of Baltimore that was discovered in 1997 a protein synthesized in mammals (including in the Human).
Its role is to block muscle cell proliferation which allows the repair or control this muscle growth.
The medical profession has very quickly saw an interest in this product to help people in treatment to fight against muscle weakness or deficiency of strength. Indeed, inhibition of the molecule of activity possible to consider the proliferation of muscle cells.
Several methods of inhibiting myostatin activity have been developed. The purpose of these methods is to prevent the binding between myostatin and its receptor (ACVR2b), which leads to blocking myostatin activity and therefore to increase muscle mass.
One method is to complex myostatin to another molecule before it binds to its receptor. Several molecules can be used for this purpose. Some are naturally occurring endogenous molecules in humans and play a role in modulating the activity of myostatin. One such molecule is follistatin. Present in human serum, this protein is a natural inhibitor of myostatin.
Another endogenous molecule for inhibiting myostatin activity is the propeptide of myostatin.
Ce propeptide present in the structure of the immature myostatin (latent myostatin) is cleaved upon activation of the myostatin. Eventually, it will come back to bind to the active myostatin and then inhibit the binding to its receptor. Synthetic peptides identical to these natural peptides are used by some athletes to inhibit the action of the myostatin.
Other molecules, which are naturally produced by the human body, sufficient to prevent the interaction of myostatin and its receptor. There are also antibodies anti-myostatin which will sequester and cause inhibition of its binding. Another product, consisting of a binding site of the myostatin identical to that of the natural receptor coupled to a human antibody fragment, a soluble receptor form of myostatin unable to trigger the signal leading to blockage of the proliferation of muscle cells . A portion of the myostatin protein capable of binding to receptors of myostatin and block without triggering the intracellular signal causing the stopping of muscle growth was also totally artificial way product research laboratory.
In terms of sports, gene doping, That is to say the set optimal physiological conditions, has several objectives. Increasing the size and the muscle power is one, there is also the improvement of the direct performance, and also, to allow healing (in case of muscle damage) faster or more rapid recovery and optimum order to resume training at a higher dose quickly.
The biological doping therefore need to "crack down" on three main points: train more skeletal muscles, increase oxygen capacity in the body, and finally, to maximize the energy input.
This molecule therefore has a real interest at the top athletes because it is naturally secreted by skeletal muscle cells during development and in adulthood. It is encoded by the gene of the same name localized on chromosome 2.
It plays an important role in regulating muscle growth. Indeed, his statement is true for stop production of muscle tissue which is to prevent an excessive growth of muscles.
The interest in gene doping would be to inhibit myostatin. Taken intravenously, several methods are designed to block (inhibit) the action of myostatin:
- Stop active myostatin by antibodies.
- Inactivate myostatin with a synthetic propeptide (not produced by the body).
- Increase the expression of natural myostatin inhibitors as follistatin.
- Inactivate myostatin receptors fixed on skeletal cells.
These inhibitors thus make it possible to inactivate the function of regulating muscle growth of the muscles of the myostatin. If this function is inactivated, so the muscles can grow excessively which would focus in sports requiring high muscle power like weightlifting or bodybuilding or any sport where strength and muscle mass are very important.
Most scientists is complete agreement on the fact that inhibition of myostatin in humans will be possible in the near future. Therefore, all anti-doping organizations are already working and preparing to find tests that detect blocking myostatin blocked.