To understand anabolic steroids, it is important to trace their history and development of the origins until today.
At the time it was first émi the assumption that the testicles are necessary both for the development of man and for the maintenance of male sexual ability. Soon after, this hypothesis has been deepened by a scientist named Berthold and his experiments on cockerels 1849. He withdrew their their testicles, and roosters lost several characteristics common to males of this species (such as their sexual function).
1849 soon, so we knew that the testicles were essential to what we consider to be human primary sexual properties. Berthold also found that if the testicles were removed and then transplanted to the abdomen, the sexual function of the cocks were not impacted. When the volatiles were dissected, it was also observed that no nerve connection was established, and that hair cocks had greatly increased. This demonstrated that the testicles were acting on the blood and Berthold therefore concluded that this blood then had a systemic effect on the entire body.
The history of anabolic steroids really began with this simple series of experiments.
Increased testosterone levels
Later, in 1929, procedure, recovery and production of a powerful concentrated from bull's testicles was attempted, and it is in 1935 a purer form of this extract was created. A year later, a scientist named Ruzicka synthesizes Testosterone, From cholesterol, followed by two other scientists, Butenandt and Hanisch. Testosterone is of course the first anabolic steroid ever created, and remains the basis for all other derivations that are used in medicine today.
La Testosterone was then used in 1936 in another experiment which demonstrated that nitrogen excretion castrated dog could be increased by giving the dog a testosterone supplement and even increasing its weight. A rumor that was never proven reports that the Nazis would have given their soldiers anabolic steroids.
Later, further experiments were conducted and have proven that testosterone was a potent anabolic humans. Later, between the 1948 and 1954 years, pharmaceutical firms Searle and Ciba have engaged in synthesizing of over a thousand testosterone derivatives and analogs.
The story of steroids in athletics begins
In 1954, Dr. John Ziegler attended the World Championships Weightlifting in Vienna (Austria) as the official team doctor Soviet. The Soviets then dominated the competition that year, easily breaking several world records and winning gold medals in all categories. Rumor Ziegler would have confessed to a bar that testosterone injections were performed on athletes.
Once the Americans back world championships, so they immediately began to use the injection method to defeat the Soviets. The doctor of the US team was also involved with Ciba lab to try to synthesize a substance even better and more powerful than pure testosterone. Thus, 1956, the methandrostenolone was established, taking the name Dianabol .
In the following years, little pink dianabol oral tablets took place in a training program many weightlifter, so that in the early years.
In 1960, there was a clear performance gap between Ziegler weightlifters and the rest of the country, and much less gap with the Soviets. It is also in the 1960 years that another anabolic steroid was developed and used to treat developmental delays in children with Turner syndrome.
At that time, more and more Americans doctors began to hear about steroids. Many studies have been conducted on athletes using them to try to increase their performance. The first results of this study on the impact of steroids on athletic performance have clearly demonstrated that there was not much effect at this level. By cons we noticed a slight increase in physical stature and muscles. But this study was not reliable ... The first problem, and most obvious, is that the steroid doses were usually very low, too low to produce a real effect. The second problem was that these studies were not well conducted and the test groups are very poorly constructed. Nutrition and exercise were also controlled or standardized.
Despite this, in 1967, the International Olympic Council banned the use of anabolic steroids on the precautionary principle (doping), and in the midst of 1970 years, most major sports organizations also.
Just prior to the ban on steroids in the Olympics, the German Democratic Republic (GDR) began a program with the aim of synthesizing new anabolic steroids for their athletes in several sports categories. The fruit of this research remains even today the largest collection of information on the use of steroids in athletes. Despite the small size of their country, they managed to dominate the various sports, competing with the United States and the Soviet Union. In 1972, the IOC launched a large-scale drug screening program.
In 1982, the International Olympic Council had developed a way to detect excessive levels of testosterone in athletes: the test testosterone to epitestosterone. Testosterone levels and epitestosterone are then evaluated and compared. If the testosterone level is 6 times greater than the level of epitestosterone, it can be concluded that some form of testosterone has been used by the athlete. This level a priori unnatural highlights that the subject is doped. But the IOC was already late, as was his habit: the GDR had already put into practice on their athletes a new form of testosterone that dispersed quickly in the body. The athletes were successful test of the IOC three days after their last injection. They then developed a protocol to allow their athletes to continue steroid use. Even better, the German company Jenapharm, which was already provided steroids to athletes, even developed a product (epitestosterone) to administer to athletes to bring the testosterone ratio to normal while continuing to use steroids.
Their doping methods were so advanced that they remained undetected for many years until 1989 when information was leaked to the western media: a systematic program administration of anabolic steroids and concealment government sponsored. Outrageous! And that is the scandal that helped create a bad reputation as anabolic steroids still have today. Ironically, it is also in 90 years that anabolic steroids began to be used by physicians to improve the longevity of patients with AIDS and cancer.
Steroids in the United States
A similar scenario unfolded in the United States. 1988 before the steroids were prescribe prescription only as medicines, following the classification of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). But they were not controlled either.
In 1988, the vote of theAnti-Drug Act put steroids in a totally different prescription category, providing for very severe legal penalties for illegal possession or sale. Possession and distribution of steroids was considered a crime.
Then, the US Congress added steroids in "Annex III" of the law, placing these anabolic products at the same level as amphetamines, methamphetamines, opium and morphine, with identical penalties purchase or sale. This bill was passed without the support of the American Medical Association, the FDA, the DEA, or the National Institute on Drug Abuse.
Steroids have again been pushed to the information by the introduction of prohormones, developed and marketed by Patrick Arnold. And it is at this point that the history of steroids in baseball between the USA.
Steroids and American baseball
Until that moment, Major League Baseball had no steroid testing program. Until Mark Maguire, an American sports wanting to beat the famous Home Run record of Roger Maris, was surprised by a journalist with a bottle in his locker androstendione (note that androstenedione is not even not a steroid but a prohormone).
Steroids have thus again dominated the press and media, remaining present in the news, even after the case when an athlete had tested positive or admitted using them.
In 2000 years, steroids have again made the news in the mass introduction of prohormones. It was at that moment that the steroids in baseball begins to become more important.
Soon after the famous Roger Maris record was beaten, another baseball player, Jason Giambi and others have identified as users summers. The Congress convened a hearing and did not determine that steroids were a danger, but rather that it was for professional sports organizations to supervise and regulate their use. The law was updated, giving at the same time an official definition of the term steroid: the United States, an "anabolic steroid" means any drug or hormonal substance, chemically and pharmacologically related to testosterone (other than estrogens) progestins, corticosteroids, and dehydroepiandrosterone).
Nowadays, steroid use is far from declining. A recent internet study even concluded that the use of anabolic steroids in weightlifters and the bodybuilders continues, including Athletics or consumption would increase more and more.
In addition, the legal use of anabolic steroids continues for many medical problems, ranging from treatment of andropause or menopause, through the acceleration of the rate of healing of burn victims. Steroids also continue to assist and improve the quality of life of patients with AIDS, breast cancer and fight effectively against osteoporosis.